Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Beeghly Library Research Guide

Evaluating Sources: TRAAP Test

The following criteria will assist you in evaluating information, whether it is in a book, article, or website. Remember, you are your own final authority when it comes to finding reliable information.

  • Timeliness – the “newness” of the information
  • Relevance – the depth and importance of the information for you
  • Authority – the source of the information
  • Accuracy – the reliability and correctness of the information
  • Purpose – the reason the information was created 

Timeliness: The "newness" of the information

Ask yourself:

  • When was the information published or posted?
  • Have there been new versions or editions since this was published?
  • How quickly does new research for this topic come out?
  • Does new research expand upon or replace old information for this topic? 

Relevance: The depth and importance of the information for you

Ask yourself:

  • Does this source help answer your question? Does only part of it help?
  • Is it covering all aspects of your topic or only parts?
  • How detailed is the information? Is it too basic for your needs? Too advanced?

Authority: The source of the information

Ask yourself:

  • Who is the author? What can you find about them in the source itself or through a web search?
  • Is the author a professor or other expert? Does she have a degree related to the topic? Has she written on the topic previously?

  • Is the author drawing from her own personal experience?
  • Has the information been reviewed in some way, such as by an editor or through peer review? Was it self-published or posted on a personal site?

Accuracy: The reliability and correctness of the information

Ask yourself:

  • Where does the information come from?
  • Does the author cite other sources? What does she cite?
  • For websites, did the author provide links to other sources? Do the links still work?
  • For studies, experiments, and other original research, does the author explain the method she used to find her results?
  • Does the information in this resource agree with other resources you have found and your own personal knowledge?

Purpose: The reason the information was created

Ask yourself:

  • Why did the author publish this source? Is she looking to inform, teach, advocate, sell, or entertain?
  • Who is the intended audience? Is this designed for general readers or academic readers?
  • What political, ideological, cultural, religious, institutional, personal or other perspectives does the author have?
  • What perspectives are not included within this resource, especially less privileged perspectives?  

Learn more about evaluating sources at